Monthly Archives: February 2013

UK – Search Begins for Famous World War II Submarine

HMS Saracen
IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM The HMS Saracen on the River Mersey, U.K., in July 1942.

One of the most celebrated submarines of World War II could soon be located 70 years after she was scuttled to avoid falling into enemy hands.

On Aug. 14, 1943, the H.M.S. Saracen was deliberately sunk by her crew near the town of Bastia, on the northern coast of the French island of Corsica, after being damaged in a clash with Italian warships. She has lain undisturbed at the bottom of the Mediterranean ever since, but now a new operation to find her wreck is under way.

The André Malraux, a state-of-the-art, $13 million research vessel, departed from the French port of Marseille on Monday and is now combing the ocean floor in search of the lost British sub. France’s underwater archaeological unit (DRASSM) is using side-scan sonar to locate the remains and will then deploy a robotic camera to examine her down in the depths.

“A copy of the resulting pictures and film will be sent to the Royal Navy Submarine Museum in Gosport for their archives,” Terry Hodgkinson, a British author who has written extensively about the ill-fated vessel, told the U.K. Telegraph. “Some will also be sent to the family members of HMS Saracen’s crew.”

The 217-foot Saracen was one of the most successful Allied submarines marauding the seas of Europe. She torpedoed the Italian submarine Granito, the auxiliary submarine chaser Maria Angelette, the Vichy French tugs Provincale II and Marseillaise V, the Italian merchant ships Tagliamento and Tripoli and the German merchant vessel Tell, according to official records.

But on Aug. 13, 1943, she was mortally wounded by depth charges launched from the Italian corvettes Minerva and Euterpe; her superstitious captain, Lieut. Michael Lumby, insisted on waiting for a day to pass in order to avoid scuttling the ship on the unlucky Friday the 13th.

Two of the  Saracen’s 48 crewmembers died while attempting to flee the wreckage, meaning that her wreck is classed as an official war grave. Should the DRASSM find the submarine as expected, a bronze badge will be placed on top that bears the inscription: ‘In memory of H.M.S. Saracen and her Crew who played a vital role in the Liberation of Corsica. Sank 14th August 1943.’

One sailor who managed to escape with his life was William T. H. Morris, who was captured and eventually moved to the infamous prisoner of war camp at Marlag und Milag Nord in Germany.

Morris was incredibly proud to serve on the Saracen and kept a fascinating logbook. One of his poems, called Here’s to Us, includes the lines: “Here’s to the gallant submariners;
The boys with their torpedoes, by gad;
Those cool, imperturbable, calm, indisputable;
Nervy, inquisitive lads!”

Source – Time World

Ultra Electronics Maritime Systems Awarded Maintenance Contract for Canadian Submarine Sonars

Submarine Image Gallery

Canadian submarine HMCS Chicoutimi in heavy seas

DARTMOUTH, NOVA SCOTIA- – Ultra Electronics Maritime Systems Inc (UEMS) (LSE:ULE) is pleased to announce that it has been awarded a contract to provide services for the ongoing maintenance of the Royal Canadian Navy’s submarine towed array sonars. The towed array sonars are the principal long range underwater sensor for the submarines. Under the contract, UEMS will be responsible for repairing and refurbishing the towed arrays as well as updating obsolete components and technology. The contract has a total value of $6.96M (CAD).

Dan Simard, UEMS’s Director Business Development, stated “We welcome this opportunity to continue our work for the Royal Canadian Navy and to contribute to the operational effectiveness of Canada’s submarines.”

Ultra Electronics Maritime Systems Inc. (UEMS)


Ultra Electronics Maritime Systems Inc (UEMS) is an international leader in the development of equipment and systems for undersea surveillance and anti-submarine warfare (ASW). Established in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada in 1947, UEMS delivers sophisticated sonar systems to navies around the world including Multi-static Active Passive Sonar for the Dutch Navy, Integrated Sonar Suite for the Royal Australian Navy, and the Surface Ship Torpedo Defence System for the Royal Navy. UEMS provides unique engineering, development, manufacturing, test, evaluation, and management capabilities to develop and deliver advanced electronic, electromechanical, and underwater sensor systems for military applications.

Source – Market Wire


Rolls-Royce begins work on new Raynesway factory to build reactors for submarines

WORK has officially started on Rolls-Royce’s new submarine reactor factory.

Yesterday, Vice Admiral Sir Andrew Mathews, the Royal Navy’s chief of fleet, conducted a ground-breaking ceremony at the company’s marine power site in Raynesway.



The multi-million-pound Core Manufacturing Facility will replace existing production buildings at the site. It will produce reactor fuel cores for UK submarines and will support 300 Derby jobs.

Vice Admiral Sir Andrew Mathews leads the ground-breaking ceremony at the site of the new Rolls-Royce factory that will build reactors for the UK sub fleet.

Vice Admiral Sir Andrew Mathews leads the ground-breaking ceremony at the site of the new Rolls-Royce factory that will build reactors for the UK sub fleet.

The building is part of a phased revamp of the Raynesway site, which will take place over the next decade.

Sir Andrew said: “Rolls-Royce has played a vital role in supporting the Royal Navy’s nuclear submarine propulsion programme for over 50 years.

“This significant investment to regenerate the facility, to build our nuclear reactor cores, will ensure that the site continues to do so for decades to come.”

Jason Smith, president of submarines and chief operating officer for nuclear, said: “We are pleased to begin construction of this important facility, which will use the most advanced manufacturing techniques to enhance our world-leading nuclear manufacturing capability.

“The investment in this facility demonstrates the high level of trust that the Ministry of Defence has in both our technology and the expertise of our highly skilled workforce.”

Rolls-Royce is investing £500 million to regenerate its Raynesway site after striking a huge £1.1 billion deal last year to build submarine reactors for the MoD.

A further £600 million is being used to develop two submarine reactors.

One of the engines will be used to power a seventh Astute Class attack submarine and one will be for the first of the next generation of nuclear-deterrent submarines – the Vanguard, which can deploy Trident ballistic missiles carrying nuclear warheads.

They will replace the four existing Vanguards, the first of which is due to leave service in 2022.

The Government has said that a final decision on renewing the Trident missile system would not be made until 2016 – but long lead times meant that work on the project needs to start now.

Last week, Rolls-Royce signed a 10-year “foundation contract” with the MoD, worth £800 million.

It is aimed at delivering and supporting the UK’s nuclear submarine fleet.

The contract covers the overheads, running and business costs at Rolls-Royce’s submarines sites.

Source – This is Derbyshire


Lebanon claims Israeli submarines spotted near coast

Naval fleet reportedly patrolling from Nakura as far north as Sidon

Illustrative photo of an Israeli Navy Dolphin class submarine off the coast of Haifa. (photo credit: Moshe Shai/Flash90)

Illustrative photo of an Israeli Navy Dolphin class submarine off the coast of Haifa. (photo credit: Moshe Shai/Flash90)

French UNIFIL forces in southern Lebanon said they saw the Israeli subs on several days, traveling from Nakura past Tyre and as far north as Sidon, the Israeli newspaper Maariv reported Monday, citing Lebanese news site Addiyar Online.

The report said the UN had been apprised of the Israeli movement, but Hezbollah had not received word of it.

In recent weeks, Lebanon several times accused Israel of violating Lebanese airspace by sending “spy” drones on overflights and conducting mock sorties.

Israel has not responded to the allegations.

In late January, US officials told The New York Times that Israel had notified the United States about an airstrike it carried out near the Lebanese-Syrian border. The officials said that they believed the target of the strike was a convoy carrying sophisticated anti-aircraft weaponry intended to reach Hezbollah forces in Lebanon.

An unnamed Western official told The Wall Street Journal that the convoy was carrying sophisticated Russian-made SA-17 anti-aircraft weapons, which could constitute a strategic game-changer were Hezbollah to possess them.

A former Syrian general said later that week that the facility reportedly struck by Israel produced nonconventional weapons, in addition to conventional arms. Maj. Gen. Adnan Sillu was previously in charge of the country’s chemical weapons training program.

Israel never officially commented on the alleged air raid.

On Saturday, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah warned of a very harsh response should Israel choose to attack Lebanon.

“The Islamic resistance won’t keep mum on any Israeli attack on Lebanon,” Nasrallah said, adding that Hezbollah would not need to transfer any weapons from Syria to retaliate. “The resistance in Lebanon possesses all the necessary equipment.”

Source – The Times of Israel

HMS Tireless returns to Plymouth after reactor leak

HMS Tireless

HMS Tireless will undergo repairs in Plymouth


The Devon-based submarine HMS Tireless has returned to Plymouth after a leak in its nuclear reactor.

The Royal Navy said the small leak of coolant was contained within the reactor compartment of the Trafalgar-class hunter-killer vessel.

The navy said that the incident “posed no risk to the public, the environment or the crew”.

It added it was not yet known how long the repairs to the 28-year-old vessel would take.


Scott Bingham Business reporter, BBC Spotlight

While HMS Tireless has had its fair share of problems, the Royal Navy has been able to keep the boat in sufficient shape to remain part of the UK’s armed forces for nearly 30 years.

The vessel is expected to be decommissioned this year.

The navy openly admits that it and four sister vessels still in service were “designed as Cold War warriors” and are now having to adapt to the demands of the 21st Century.

Any problem with any vessel’s nuclear systems must be treated very seriously, but those systems are completely contained in a sealed compartment.

There are also safety procedures in place to prevent radioactivity from leaking out of the vessel.

This, coupled with the fact the submarine has always come back to its base in a city populated by 250,000 people, shows the service is confident such situations can be kept safely under control.

It is the latest in a series of incidents that have affected the submarine.

In 2007, two mechanics died on board when a self-contained oxygen generator exploded while the vessel was under the North Pole.

The vessel was sailing under an ice pack 170 miles (275km) north of Deadhorse, in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, when the accident happened.

In 2000, a fault was discovered on board which then forced 12 hunter-killer nuclear submarines in the UK’s fleet to undergo intensive inspections.

The submarine became stranded in Gibraltar in May of the same year with a leak in pipe work leading from the nuclear reactor system.

It was there for nearly a year while repairs were carried out, putting a strain on relations with Spain, and drawing criticism from environmentalists.

In May 2003, it was taken to Scotland for repairs prompting a Ministry of Defence inquiry after it collided with an object at sea.

Source – BBC News

Navy to Congress: No budget, no second submarine in 2014

USS Providence (SSN – 719)

Service releases plan in face of looming, automatic budget cuts.

If Congress doesn’t pass a budget this fiscal year, the Navy said it likely would not purchase a second Virginia-class submarine in 2014.

The Navy released its latest plan to Congress on Tuesday for how it will be affected if the government keeps operating on a continuing resolution that funds spending at last year’s levels, and if Congress does not act before March 1 to prevent the automatic spending cuts known as sequestration.

The continuing resolution expires March 27, and Congress could extend it for the rest of the fiscal year.

U.S. Rep. Joe Courtney, D-2nd District, said the House Armed Services Committee created and passed a plan that authorized two submarines in 2014.

“Now it is incumbent on congressional appropriators to work with us to get the rest of the way there,” he said. “The House’s plate is full and time is running out to act. That is why last week I voted against Speaker Boehner’s motion to adjourn, shutting down the House for 10 days that would be better used tackling these issues, supporting our critical defense priorities, and protecting our economy.”

The Navy told Congress last month it would cancel a $45 million repair job on the USS Providence (SSN 719) at Electric Boat and two demolition projects involving three older buildings at the Naval Submarine Base in Groton unless Congress agreed on a new budget. And if sequestration occurs, the Navy said, it would delay repairs to the Groton-based USS Miami and cancel several ship deployments.

At that time, the Navy did not say the second submarine in 2014 was in jeopardy. A Navy spokeswoman said Tuesday’s update provides a higher level of detail.

EB in Groton and Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia jointly build two attack submarines per year. The plans for two submarines in 2013 are not expected to change.

Source – The Day

S-1000 submarine – joint Russian-Italian development


Russia and Italy are resuming their joint development S-1000 submarine, which is an export version of the Amur class submarine. The joint development is between Rubin Design Bureau of Russia and Fincantieri of Italy.

Although the main global producers of submarines such as Germany, France and Russia continue to receive stable revenues by exporting their submarines, the development of modern models is becoming more sophisticated. This often requires cooperation with other countries. Cooperation also enables the partners to make development and production less expensive. In conditions where more and more countries are planning to create or upgrade their own submarine fleet the Russian-Italian project on building the S-1000 submarine promises to become a profitable enterprise for both countries.

The idea of creating a joint Russian-Italian submarine emerged in the late 1990-s. The actual development of the 1000-tons heavy submarine began in 2004. In 2008, the work was interrupted because of the global economic crisis. However, today the situation looks more optimistic with the growing demand for submarines in the Asian-Pacific region.

The new submarine can interest any country that is looking for less expensive solutions. S-1000 is a quite universal submarine. It is designed for anti-submarine and anti-ship warfare, reconnaissance missions, and the transportation of up to 12 troops. The submarine is equipped with a new fuel cell-powered Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system developed in Italy. The price of the future S-1000 is not unveiled but industry experts say that it won’t exceed $120 million-150 million per unit. This price even together with the costs of maintenance and crew training makes the submarine affordable even for relatively poor countries.

Taking into account the current state of the joint project the production of S-1000 can start already in 2-3 years. Moreover in terms of price this project has almost no competitors.

Cooperating with Italy on S-1000 Russia will also continue working on other Amur-class submarines for example Amur-950. This is a more expensive submarine which also features an impressive array of weaponry including missiles. It is known that Russia’s Defense Ministry is planning to resume the serial construction of 677 submarines for the national Navy. These submarines are equipped with the Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system. The export version of 677 is known as Amur-1650. China and Indonesia are showing interest in buying these submarines.

Source – The Voice of Russia

Troubled Trafalgar class nuclear submarine, HMS Tireless, in new reactor coolant leak

HMS Tireless was the third of the Trafalgar class hunter-killer nuclear submarines. These are not nuclear armed but nuclear powered and conventionally armed.

Tireless was launched in 1985 and, at  28 years old, was due to be decommissioned this year. However, her service was extended for another four years due to the delay in the rollout of the new Astute class submarines.

Ten days ago, Tireless was taking part in a training exercise for new officers off the west coast, when a coolant leak developed within its sealed reactor unit. The Ministry of Defence has said that no risk was involved  to the public the environment or the crew.

Tireless was ordered back to the Faslane naval base on the Clyde where engineers inspected the leak; and then returned to her home base at Devonport.

She is said to face up to 10 months in dry dock while repair work is carried out.

Tireless is most famous for a series of troubling incidents.

She collided with an iceberg at 60 metres down on 13th May 2003 [it would have been the 13th]. This was the first return of the navy to under-ice operations since 1996. Neither her passive sonar nor other onboard sensors had given any warning of the proximity of the iceberg.  Tireless’s bow was forced down 9 degrees and she subsequently broke free of the iceberg at a depth of 78 metres. Some damage was done to her upper section.

She suffered an earlier leak  of her reactor coolant , in May 2000 in the Mediterranean. This saw her nuclear propulsion system shut down, with backup diesel power getting her into Gibraltar. She spent a year there under extensive repairs,  becoming the focus of serious diplomatic strain.

In March 2007, on deployment back in the Arctic, it was Tireless that had an internal explosion  in her forward section – later found to be caused by a defective or obsolete oxygen candle.This killed two of her crew – Leading Operator Mechanic Paul McCann; and Operator Maintainer (Weapons Submariner) 2 Anthony Huntrod.

Following the current incident, there is real concert that the cost of the failures experienced by  the new Astute hunter-killers – in forcing the extension of the lives of ageing Trafagar class submarines like Tireless – may be asking the impossible or the dangerous.

The problems in with commissioning of the Astute submarines are having a knock on effect on the nuclear safety of the older Tralfalgar hunter-killers that were due for decommissioned.

This latest reactor coolant leak is seen as potential evidence that this ship is actually reaching the end of her life. It may be that she has to be decommissioned and will not emerge from the extensive repair period now necessary.

Her preceding two siblings – class leader, HMS Trafalgar and HMS Turbulent have already been decommissioned, Tralfalgar in 2009 and Turbulent in JUly last year, 2012.

The current incident has reduced the hunter-killer fleet to a maximum of five instead of the recommended seven plus a spare needed to carry out vital duties, including protecting the UK’s Trident missile-carrying Vanguard submarines.

Of those five, Astute, Britain’s brand new £1.2billion attack submarine which – gloriously – ran aground in 2010 for the ultimate photo opportunity – just beside the Skye Bridge –  is still not fully operational. One other, possibly two, are in maintenance.

This latest incident comes just weeks after the Clyde-based Trident submarine,  HMS Vigilant ,was stranded in the US after its rudder broke, just after her £350million refit.

The leak will also fuel the heated political debate about nuclear submarines operating in Scottish waters.

Last night, local MSP, Michael Russell MSP for Argyll and Bute, called on the Ministry of Defence to clarify exactly what had happened. He said: “This is the latest in a long line of alarming incidents involving nuclear submarines off the coast of Scotland. ‘

Andy Smith of the UK National Defence Association, says: ‘The problems with HMS Tireless illustrate the folly of trying to have ‘defence on the cheap’ and failing to upgrade or replace equipment due to political short-sightedness and a defence policy dictated by the treasury rather than the military.’

Source – For Argyll

149 year anniversary of the first submarine to sink an enemy warship

Sunday marks the anniversary of the H.L. Hunley’s mission against the federal blockade ship Housatonic off Charleston.

The Hunley sank the Union ship but neither the sub nor its eight-man crew returned.

Lt. Gov. Glenn McConnell speaks at a ceremony Sunday at Sunrise Presbyterian Church on Breach Inlet where the Hunley began its mission. Afterward, there’s a procession to the inlet where there will be infantry and artillery salutes.

Both the crew of the Hunley and the five Houstonic crewmen who died are being honored.

Confederate Civil War vessel H.L. Hunley, the world’s first successful combat submarine

H. L. Hunley was a submarine of the Confederate States of America that played a small part in the American Civil War, but a large role in the history of naval warfare. The Hunley demonstrated both the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. It was the first combat submarine to sink an enemy warship, although the Hunley was not completely submerged and was lost at some point following her successful attack. The Confederacy lost 21 crewmen in three sinkings of the Hunley during her short career. The submarine was named for her inventor, Horace Lawson Hunley, shortly after it was taken into service under the control of the Confederate Army at Charleston, South Carolina.

The Hunley, nearly 40 feet (12 m) long, was built at Mobile, Alabama, and launched in July 1863. It was then shipped by rail on August 12, 1863 to Charleston, South Carolina. Hunley (then called Fish Boat) sank on August 29, 1863, during a training exercise, killing five members of her crew. It sank again on October 15, 1863, killing all eight of her second crew, including Horace Hunley himself, who was aboard at the time, even though he was not enlisted in the Confederate armed forces. Both times the Hunley was raised and returned to service. On February 17, 1864, Hunley attacked and sank the 1240-short ton (1124 metric tons) screw sloop USS Housatonic on Union blockade duty in Charleston’s outer harbor. Soon after, Hunley sank, killing all eight of her third crew. This time, the innovative ship was lost.

Finally located in 1995, the Hunley was recovered in 2000 and is on display in Charleston. Examination in 2012 of recovered Hunley artifacts suggests that the submarine was as close as 20 feet to its target, the Housatonic, when its deployed torpedo exploded, which eventually caused the sub’s own demise.

Source – Wikipedia

Source – WLTX

Russia (USSR) – The death of K-219 sub and Quakers

Pravda.Ru has written before about the mysterious death of the Soviet nuclear submarine K-219 in the Bermuda Triangle in 1986. Recent reports by scientists confirmed that the K-219 could have perished from an unidentified floating object.

This theory is now often discussed in specialized journals (mainly English) and in Russia. In a recent TV show famous admirals, former employees of the naval intelligence and security services, quite openly talked about miraculous unidentified underwater objects.

That program made me go back to the records of conversations with the untimely deceased famous Soviet submariner, Captain of the first rank Nikolai Tushin, who was a former deputy commander of a brigade that built nuclear-powered boats. In the 1980s, he was part of a rather narrow group of specialists of the Navy tasked with admission of nuclear submarines built in Severodvinsk at Sevmash to the fleet.

Because of his job he had to know all the nuances of underwater accidents that occurred from time to time with Russian atomic submarines. Our very frank discussion took place after his retirement, at a time when little by little secret mysteries of the Soviet oceanic fleet were declassified. He told me about the mysteries sparingly and tactfully, apparently for fear of becoming a source of unnecessary sensationalism. Submariners do not like sensations and only believe their own eyes and ears.

Nikolai had no doubts that the underwater object that collided with the strategic submarine “K-219” carrying two nuclear reactors and 16 ballistic nuclear missiles was not man made. Incidentally, he was the one to tell me about the troubles endured by Soviet (as well as American, British, and French) atomic submarines from the so-called “Quakers.” He said that experienced sailors were quite serious about the talks of underwater unidentified objects.

According to Tushin, he, like many other submarine commanders, saw glowing balls and cylinders in the ocean. Almost every diver has a “cherished” story. It was not customary to talk about it, and no instruments recorded sightings of such objects.

Even now little is known about these croaking invisible objects. They were first heard a few decades ago, when more or less sensitive sonar equipment that could hear the ocean in many sectors of sonar range appeared on submarines, especially nuclear ones.

In the 1970’s, the so-called unidentified floating objects, “Quakers,” became a serious concern for the submariners. The Navy Intelligence even established a special group to organize and analyze all unexplained phenomena occurring in the oceans. The officers who had to collect information gathered all the data that was somehow relevant. There was even a series of special ocean expeditions. The Americans also organized several expeditions, hunting for “Quakers.”

The range of “Quakers” action expanded from the Barents Sea to the Mid-Atlantic, including the Bermuda Triangle, where Russian atomic submarine “K-219” has perished. The theory of the man-made origin of the mysterious underwater object sounds rather weak because even the wealthy United States could not afford such costs.

These mysterious objects persistently pursued Russian (and not only Russian) submarines, and the chase was accompanied by characteristic acoustic signals resembling croaking of frogs.

Secret Soviet intelligence expeditions came to the conclusion that “Quakers” was a secret development of NATO, aimed at tracking Russian submarines. The Americans, too, studied the mysterious phenomenon in detail, and with equal determination reported that this was a top secret development of the USSR for the detection of foreign submarines. Perhaps, had the two countries combined the effort to study this strange phenomenon, the problem would have been solved. But this was the time of the “cold war.”

Those who actually heard the Quakers had a lasting impression that the unknown source of the mysterious sound was aware of its actions. Some even felt that the Quakers, appearing out of the blue, tried hard to make a contact.

In fact, the Quakers did not pose any threat to submarines. Another thing is that some submariners developed a phobia, and were afraid of starting their watch. They were afraid of losing their sanity because of mysterious sounds of “Quakers.”

According toTushin, sometimes submarines thought that the mysterious objects were displaying friendliness.

The famous atomic experienced diver, admitted to the controls of nearly all projects of the Soviet nuclear submarines, admitted that we might be dealing with some unknown underwater civilization. Indeed, the underwater world is explored much less than space.

I used to serve in the submarine fleet for a number of years, and one day, while I was still a lieutenant, had a chance to hear a “Quaker”. Another lieutenant invited me in his operating room and handed me a pair of headphones. I heard “croaking” at a specific, constant frequency. The sound reminded that of an unknown animal.

The boat was moving at a low speed at a depth of 250 meters. Once it moved up to the depth of 120 meters, “croaking” in the headphones stopped. The commander said not to record these sounds in the log.

By the end of the 1980s the Soviet secret research program “Quaker” was discontinued. There was no available funding in the USSR that at the time was falling apart. The most interesting thing is that the sounds of “Quaker” in the ocean disappeared by the time, as if someone told the “unidentified” objects that they were no longer interesting. Since the 1990’s there have been no official reports of meetings with them.

The group of scouts and scientists was disbanded, and all of the materials were classified. It remains unclear why the group was disbanded so suddenly and what they were able to learn about the “Quakers”. Unfortunately, this information is still classified both in Russia and the U.S., and only occasionally the information about it leaks to the press.

But back to the collapse of the Soviet submarine “K-219” in the Bermuda Triangle not far from the land borders of the United States. As established by a special commission, the cause of the accident was an “incident” in the missile silo that for some reason became unsealed, and the subsequent leak of poisonous rocket fuel into the rocket section. Then there was a fire.

As a result of experimental tests, simulations and careful analysis, it was shown that it was not the fault of the crew but the impact of external factors. The official reports have pictures that prove that the body of “K-219” had a large groove. The committee that investigated the incident concluded that the external impact was a foreign submarine. Soviet intelligence reported that not a single NATO submarine was repaired after the collision.

Those who thought of the unidentified objects as the reason of the accident were afraid to speak up not to be considered insane.

Tushin was convinced that “К-219” was sunk by a mysterious force, but at the time could not admit it out loud. The unidentified floating objects remain a mystery of the ocean.

Source – Pravda

Also read: K-219: The sub that scared Reagan and Gorbachev